Another early subscription school was started by Thomas Dimsdale in Virginia City in 1863. Three former Montana politicians have been named judges on the U.S. District Court: Charles Nelson Pray (who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1907 to 1913), James Franklin Battin (who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1961 to 1969), and Paul G. Hatfield (who served as an appointed U.S. It is bordered by Idaho to the west; North Dakota and South Dakota to the east; Wyoming to the south; and by the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan to the north. , An economic depression began in Montana after World War I and lasted through the Great Depression until the beginning of World War II. Montana did not see a large influx of immigrants from this act because 160 acres were usually insufficient to support a family in the arid territory. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys. There are also some famous people from Montana. Montana's fastest-growing sector is tourism; nearly 13 million annual tourists visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, and other attractions.  The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, and isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. It’s part of the state-wide highly regarded nursing program. Burnings of German-language books and several near-hangings occurred. For political reasons, Congress did not approve Montana statehood until February 1889 and President Grover Cleveland signed an omnibus bill granting statehood to Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Washington once the appropriate state constitutions were crafted.  Farther downstream, it is joined by the Flathead River before entering Idaho near Lake Pend Oreille.  The draft included an expanded, more progressive list of civil and political rights, extended these rights to children for the first time, transferred administration of property taxes to the counties from the state, implemented new water rights, eliminated sovereign immunity, and gave the legislature greater power to spend tax revenues. This caused great hardship for farmers, ranchers, and miners. , The Northern Divide turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak, causing the Waterton, Belly, and Saint Mary Rivers to flow north into Alberta.  The 2010 Census put Montana's population at 989,415. , In the early 1900s, James J. Hill of the Great Northern began to promote settlement in the Montana prairie to fill his trains with settlers and goods. When the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba, President John F. Kennedy said the Soviets backed down because they knew he had an "ace in the hole", referring directly to the Minuteman missiles in Montana. Temperatures vary greatly on cold nights, and Helena, 40 miles (64 km) to the southeast had a low of only −36 °F or −37.8 °C on the same date, and an all-time record low of −42 °F or −41.1 °C. Billings is Montana's largest city and Great Falls is the state's second largest city. Password must be at least 8 characters, including uppercase, lowercase, and a number. , The land in Montana east of the continental divide was part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Christmas spirit saves NBA star from suspension  Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west. The famous battle is known as "Custar's Last Stand" and was probably the biggest force of Indian warriors to gather in Western history. Mountain ranges can accumulate 300 inches or 7.62 meters of snow during a winter. Montana is the only state in the union without a modern naval ship named in its honor. Farmers of Irish, Scots, and English roots also settled in Montana.  Foothill regions are often covered in weathered stone or broken slate, or consist of uncovered bare rock (usually igneous, quartzite, sandstone, or shale).  The first homestead claim under the act in Montana was made by David Carpenter near Helena in 1868. In addition, Montana was going through a temporary period of higher-than-average precipitation.  This time, Rep. Samuel Cox, also of Ohio, objected to the name. Famed daredevil Evel Knievel is also from Montana. The amount of property tax owed is not determined solely by the property's value. The state spans from below the 45th parallel (the line equidistant between the equator and North Pole) to the 49th parallel, and elevations range from under 2,000 feet (610 m) to nearly 13,000 feet (4,000 m) above sea level. The western half is mountainous, interrupted by numerous large valleys. Robinson. , Montana is governed by a constitution. Montana in popular culture is famous for: 1. 19. Montana is known for its open expanses and beautiful wilderness. However, the grizzly bear and Canadian lynx are listed as a threatened species only for the mainland 48 states. Montana Youth Courts were established by the Montana Youth Court Act of 1974. Additionally, more than 10,000 invertebrate species are present, including 180 mollusks and 30 crustaceans. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, while the eastern half is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands, with more (albeit smaller) mountain ranges found throughout the state. Operated by the National Park Service, it is a 1,900-acre (7.7 km2) working ranch.. However, public opinion grew increasingly negative toward them in the 1890s, and nearly half of the state's Asian population left the state by 1900. Senator in 1978).  The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located primarily in Glacier National Park. Report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service", "Montana Shakespeare Company Finds New Home at Helena Civic Center", "UM Climate Expert Says Triple-digit Julys Will Be Norm", "Montana's Agony: Years of War and Hysteria, 1917–1921", "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010", "In Montana, a Popular Expression Is Taken Off the Endangered List", "Overcast tune named official Montana lullaby", "93rd Annual Crow Fair Celebration Under the Big Sky", "Impacts of Climate Change From 2000 to 2050 on Wildfire Activity and Carbonaceous Aerosol Concentrations in the Western United States", "The Lady Honyocker-How Girls Take Up Claim and Make Their Homes on the Prairie", "National-park visitors boost Montana's tourism stats", "2010 Census Redistricting Data Summary File, Table P1", "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012", "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States, States, and Counties: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012", "Bozeman Airport now the Busiest in Montana", "Bridger Bowl, Bozeman Montana ~ Vacation Planning", "Census 2010–20 Largest Montana Cities, Counties", "Climate of 2007—July in Historical Perspective", "Congressional Globe, 38th Congress, 1st session", "Continental Divides in North Dakota and North America", "Cross Country Skiing and Snowshoeing in Yellowstone — Yellowstone National Park", "Current List of Eligible EAS Communities", "Davis Finds Joy, Value in Being Technical Specialist", "Demographic and Economic Profile: Montana", "Detailed Waterbody Report-Bighorn River", "Detailed Waterbody Report-Boulder River", "Detailed Waterbody Report-Clark Fork River", "Detailed Waterbody Report-Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone", "Detailed Waterbody Report-Kootenai River", "Detailed Waterbody Report-Musselshell River", "Detailed Waterbody Report-Stillwater River", "Dry Farming in the North Central Montana "Triangle, "Elevations and Distances in the United States", "Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site — Cowboys and Cattlemen", "Great Seal, Montana Code Annotated: 1-1-501", "History and Preservation — The Montana Historical Society: Montana's Museum", "Hmong Qeej Music: Tou Yang — Mai K. Moua, Missoula", "Indian Education for All – Montana Indians: Their History and Location", "John Misha Petkevich Bio, Stats, and Results", "Local Television Market Universe Estimates", "Montana Access Guide to State and Federal Lands", "Montana Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSA) Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas", "Montana Legislature 63rd Session—Majority and Minority Party Numbers 1889–Present", "Paddling Montana: Yellowstone River ~~ Excerpted from Paddling Montana by Hank Fisher", "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000", "Population of Gallatin County, Montana: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map", "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010", "Property Tax Liability, Billing and Collection", "Resident Population Data (Text Version)", "Saskatchewan River-From Glaciers to Grasslands", "Schweitzer Could Win Sen. nom in '14 but Maybe not MT in '16", "Selected Social Characteristics in the United States.  Known as laccoliths, they formed when igneous rock protruded through cracks in the sedimentary rock. Through the mid-20th century, the state had a tradition of "sending the liberals to Washington and the conservatives to Helena".  Paleontologist Jack Horner of the Museum of the Rockies in Bozeman brought this formation to the world's attention with several major finds.. The state is sometimes called "The Big Sky Country." She referred to Butte throughout the rest of her career and remains a controversial figure there for her mixture of criticism and love for Butte and its people. , By the time the U.S. entered World War II on December 8, 1941, many Montanans had enlisted in the military to escape the poor national economy of the previous decade.  Similarly, the secretary of state sponsored a children's vote in 1981 to choose a state animal, and after 74 animals were nominated, the grizzly bear won over the elk by a 2–1 margin. , The largest denominations in Montana as of 2010 were the Catholic Church with 127,612 adherents, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 46,484 adherents, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 38,665 adherents, and nondenominational Evangelical Protestant with 27,370 adherents. The Montana Act led to the arrest of more than 200 individuals and the conviction of 78, mostly of German or Austrian descent. Joseph K. Toole, Governor of the State of Montana: This act brought mostly cattle and sheep ranchers into Montana, many of whom grazed their herds on the Montana prairie for three years, did little to irrigate the land and then abandoned it without paying the final fees. On January 20, 1954, −70 °F or −56.7 °C was recorded at a gold mining camp near Rogers Pass. They are overseen by District Court judges. Complicating the wartime struggles, the 1918 influenza epidemic claimed the lives of more than 5,000 Montanans.  The Montana Territorial Legislative Assembly had its inaugural meeting in 1864. At least 1500 Montanans died in the war. (The Public Service Commission's jurisdiction is statewide.). Before western Montana was obtained from Great Britain in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, American trading posts and forts had been established in the territory.  Snowfall has been recorded in all months of the year in the more mountainous areas of central and western Montana, though it is rare in July and August. The Montana University System consists of: The Montana Territory was formed on April 26, 1864, when the U.S. passed the Organic Act. , Montana has three branches of state government: legislative, executive, and judicial. Find our other high-quality products from across the state. , As of 2009, almost two-thirds of Native Americans in the state live in urban areas. , Cattle ranching has been central to Montana's history and economy since Johnny Grant began wintering cattle in the Deer Lodge Valley in the 1850s and traded cattle fattened in fertile Montana valleys with emigrants on the Oregon Trail. Until 1959, the company owned five of the state's six largest newspapers. Montana", University of Montana, Bureau of Business and Economic Research 2011, "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States", "Population of Montana: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts", Census Bureau-Annual Estimates of Race 2012, Montana Office of Public Instruction 2009, "The Association of Religion Data Archives—Maps & Reports", "Montana Constitution, Article X, section 1", "Montana Schools Try to Keep Indian Students Engaged by Teaching Indian Culture to All", "National Vital Statistics Reports Volumne 64, Number 1, January 15, 2015", "National Vital Statistics Reports, Volume 64, Number 12, December 23, 2015 (The general fertility rate for 2014 on page 4 was corrected to read 62.9 on December 23, 2015. Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is home to three Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer League: the Billings Mustangs, Great Falls Voyagers, and Missoula Osprey. The Anaconda Copper Company, which was at its historic peak of copper production, was an extremely powerful force in Montana, but it also faced criticism and opposition from socialist newspapers and unions struggling to make gains for their members. In the 2008 presidential election, Montana was considered a swing state and was ultimately won by Republican John McCain, albeit by a narrow margin of two percent..  James Willard Schultz ("Apikuni") from Browning is most noted for his prolific stories about Blackfeet life and his contributions to the naming of prominent features in Glacier National Park..  Montana allows the smallest—"Class C"—high schools to utilize six-man football teams, dramatized in the independent 2002 film The Slaughter Rule..  The state's Native American population grew by 27.9% between 1980 and 1990 (at a time when Montana's entire population rose 1.6%), and by 18.5 percent between 2000 and 2010. For other uses, see, "Montanan" redirects here. network.  During the first decade of the new century, growth was mainly concentrated in Montana's seven largest counties, with the highest percentage growth in Gallatin County, which had a 32% increase in its population from 2000 to 2010. With the help of an assistant teacher, Mrs. Farley, Raymond was responsible for teaching 50 to 60 students each day out of the 81 students enrolled at the school. Montana is famous for Yellowstone Park, wildlife, the Bighorn mountains and Glacier Park. Montana is one of the eight Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States.It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east. Over the course of four season, we heard a lot of corny jokes, even more songs to we still know the lyrics, and of course, fell in love with Miley. The Yellowstone River rises on the Continental Divide near Younts Peak in Wyoming's Teton Wilderness. Overall, since 1889 the state has voted for Democratic governors 60 percent of the time and Republican governors 40 percent of the time. Federal and state agencies administer approximately 31,300,000 acres (127,000 km2), or 35 percent of Montana's land. The area west of the divide has a modified northern Pacific Coast climate, with milder winters, cooler summers, less wind, and a longer growing season. As settlers began populating Montana from the 1850s through the 1870s, disputes with Native Americans ensued, primarily over land ownership and control. No textbooks were used in the school. The book was adapted as a film in 1943, starring Gary Cooper, a native Montanan himself. In addition, Amtrak's Empire Builder train runs through the north of the state, stopping in Libby, Whitefish, West Glacier, Essex, East Glacier Park, Browning, Cut Bank, Shelby, Havre, Malta, Glasgow, and Wolf Point.  Major tributaries of the Yellowstone include the Boulder, Stillwater, Clarks Fork, Bighorn, Tongue, and Powder Rivers. This created Montana's 1st congressional district in the west and Montana's 2nd congressional district in the east. 2. Alaska and Hawaii have both had nuclear submarines named after them. The Montana Worker's Compensation Court was established by the Montana Workers' Compensation Act in 1975. The first operational missiles were in place and ready in early 1962. In 1881, the Utah and Northern Railway, a branch line of the Union Pacific, completed a narrow-gauge line from northern Utah to Butte. This pattern shifted, beginning with the 1988 election, when Montana elected a Republican governor for the first time since 1964 and sent a Republican to the U.S. Senate for the first time since 1948. , During the age of the Copper Kings, each Montana copper company had its own newspaper.  Also, most settlers were from wetter regions, unprepared for the dry climate, lack of trees, and scarce water resources. Previously, these cold spells had killed off bark beetles, but these are now attacking the forests of western Montana. , Tourism is also important to the economy, with more than ten million visitors a year to Glacier National Park, Flathead Lake, the Missouri River headwaters, the site of the Battle of Little Bighorn, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park. Many species of mushrooms and lichens are also found in the state. The two largest schools, the University of Montana and Montana State University, are members of the Big Sky Conference and have enjoyed a strong athletic rivalry since the early twentieth century. Routes 2 and 12 and Montana Highway 200 also traverse the entire state from east to west. However, the 1889 Montana constitution significantly restricted the power of state government, the legislature was much more powerful than the executive branch, and the jurisdiction of the District Courts very specifically described. We sent you an email to reset your password.  The first school year was scheduled to begin in January 1866, but severe weather postponed its opening until March. UM is largely a liberal arts college. Montana has only one representative in the U.S. House, having lost its second district in the 1990 census reapportionment. Montana is home to the hydrological apex of North America on Triple Divide Peak.  Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced on September 3, 2015, that Virginia Class attack submarine SSN-794 will become the second commissioned warship to bear the name. , In the wake of the legislative action in 1918, emotions rose. Jay Cooke, the NPR president, launched major surveys into the Yellowstone valley in 1871, 1872, and 1873, which were challenged forcefully by the Sioux under chief Sitting Bull. Montana is one of few geographic areas in the world whose rivers form parts of three major watersheds (i.e.  In 1875, General Philip Sheridan pleaded to a joint session of Congress to authorize the slaughtering of herds to deprive the Indians of their source of food. Montana hosts numerous arts and cultural festivals and events every year. Hell Roaring Creek begins in southern Montana, and when combined with the Red Rock, Beaverhead, Jefferson, Missouri, and Mississippi River, is the longest river in North America and the fourth longest river in the world. Butte, America, located in the state of Montana, is known for its copper production.  Robert Redford's 1992 film of Norman Mclean's novel, A River Runs Through It, was filmed in Montana and brought national attention to fly fishing and the state. Historically, Republicans are strongest in the east, while Democrats are strongest in the west. , Collectively all of these areas (excluding Havre) are known informally as the "big seven", as they are consistently the seven largest communities in the state (their rank order in terms of population is Billings, Missoula, Great Falls, Bozeman, Butte, Helena and Kalispell, according to the 2010 U.S. Montana has the largest grizzly bear population in the lower 48 states.  The Pend Oreille River forms the outflow of Lake Pend Oreille. North of Missoula is the largest population of nesting common loons in the western United States. The organization is an outreach endeavor that is part of the College of Arts & Architecture at Montana State University, Bozeman. A part of southeastern Montana was used as a corridor between the Crows and the related Hidatsas in North Dakota. , The area east of the divide in the state' north-central portion is known for the Missouri Breaks and other significant rock formations. The protagonist in Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), Robert Jordan, is a native Montanan. This is how it got the name the Treasure State. This restructuring created the Montana University System and gave the college its new name, Montana Tech of The University of Montana. District Court judges are elected, and serve six-year terms. It could be a sign of a heart valve disease. Missoula / m ɪ ˈ z uː l ə / is a city in the U.S. state of Montana; it is the county seat of Missoula County.It is located along the Clark Fork River near its confluence with the Bitterroot and Blackfoot Rivers in western Montana and at the convergence of five mountain ranges, thus it is often described as the "hub of five valleys". , As World War I broke out, Jeannette Rankin, the first woman in the United States to be a member of Congress, voted against the United States' declaration of war.  By 1880, farms were in the more verdant valleys of central and western Montana, but few were on the eastern plains. For areas that experience frost earlier than others, early or mid-season apples grow best. Most of the larger cities get 30 to 50 inches or 0.76 to 1.27 meters of snow each year. Actor Gary Cooper and Jeanette Rankin, who was the first woman elected to Congress, are among those who found fame after living in the state.  The students of Livingston started a statewide school petition drive plus lobbied the governor and the state legislature to name the Maiasaura as the state fossil in 1985. , Snowmobiling is popular in Montana, which boasts over 4,000 miles of trails and frozen lakes available in winter. Hiking, fishing, hunting, watercraft recreation, camping, golf, cycling, horseback riding, and skiing are popular activities. Billings is also known for its booming oil industry. , Montana has 56 counties and a total of 364 "places" as defined by the United States Census Bureau; the latter comprising 129 incorporated places and 235 census-designated places. , The coldest temperature on record for Montana is also the coldest temperature for the contiguous United States. , In 1940, Jeannette Rankin was again elected to Congress. Montana State University Billings and Rocky Mountain College both have campuses in Billings along with many other Billings public schools. Stub-Toe State , Montana is home to the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and has a historic big game hunting tradition. There are junior ice hockey teams in Montana, four of which are affiliated with the North American 3 Hockey League: the Bozeman Icedogs, Great Falls Americans, Helena Bighorns, and Missoula Jr. Bruins. Gold output from 1862 through 1876 reached $144 million; silver then became even more important. Montana is famous for Yellowstone Park, wildlife, the Bighorn mountains and Glacier Park.  Montana's population grew at about the national average during the 2000s, but it failed to regain its second seat in 2010. This Montana Town Is Home to More Writers Than Any Other City in America Livingston is a small town near Yellowstone — it's also the country's least expected literary hotspot.  The glaciated plains are generally covered in clay, gravel, sand, and silt left by the proglacial Lake Great Falls or by moraines or gravel-covered former lake basins left by the Wisconsin glaciation 85,000 to 11,000 years ago. Infamous sheriff and outlaw Henry Plummer constructed the first jail in Montana.  Low clouds and fog often form in the valleys west of the divide in winter, but this is rarely seen in the east. Prior to that, it produced much of the copper that electrified the nation and connected it with telephone cables. The taxable value is then multiplied by the mill levy established by various taxing jurisdictions—city and county government, school districts, and others.. The coldest month varies between December and January depending on location, although figures are similar throughout. , Montana has the highest suicide rate of any state in the US as of 2017. Montana's motto, Oro y Plata, Spanish for "Gold and Silver", recognizing the significant role of mining, was first adopted in 1865, when Montana was still a territory. The lone congressional district has been Republican since 1996 and in 2014 Steve Daines won one of the state's U.S. Senate seats for the GOP. There are 22 judicial districts in Montana, served by 56 District Courts and 46 District Court judges. The state has robust recreational lake trout and kokanee salmon fisheries in the west, walleye can be found in many parts of the state, while northern pike, smallmouth and largemouth bass fisheries as well as catfish and paddlefish can be found in the waters of eastern Montana. , The Chinese in Montana, while a low percentage today, have been an important presence.  It contains the state's highest point, Granite Peak, 12,799 feet (3,901 m) high.  Three buttes south of Great Falls are major landmarks: Cascade, Crown, Square, Shaw, and Buttes. But don’t assume every change is something you need to live with as you age. Montana contains thousands of named rivers and creeks, 450 miles of which are known for “blue-ribbon” trout fishing. , On January 3, 2012, the Census and Economic Information Center (CEIC) at the Montana Department of Commerce estimated Montana had hit the one million population mark sometime between November and December 2011. People from all over Montana travel to shop at Billings, as well as people from Wyoming and North Dakota. Wheeler was brought before the Council of Defense, though he avoided formal proceedings, and a district court judge from Forsyth was impeached. Independent state agencies not within a department or office include the Montana Arts Council, Montana Board of Crime Control, Montana Historical Society, Montana Public Employees Retirement Administration, Commissioner of Political Practices, the Montana Lottery, Office of the State Public Defender, Public Service Commission, the Montana School for the Deaf and Blind, the Montana State Fund (which operates the state's unemployment insurance, worker compensation, and self-insurance operations), the Montana State Library, and the Montana Teachers Retirement System. It has a law school.  The state was sued in 2004 because of lack of funding, and the state has increased its support of the program. Joseph Clifford 'Joe' Montana, Jr. is a former American professional football player famous for his record breaking career at NFL and Super Bowl. The court employs 12 permanent special masters.  Nelson Story brought the first Texas Longhorn cattle into the territory in 1866. Federal courts in Montana include the United States District Court for the District of Montana and the United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Montana. Check out some of the awesome things we learned about our 44th State. Other major north–south highways include U.S. What would your name be if you were born today? read more The Water Court adjudicates water rights claims under the Montana Water Use Act of 1973, and has statewide jurisdiction. He is well known for having bribed his way into the U.S. Senate. If you would like to learn more about his profile, childhood, life and timeline, read on These dealings were not always peaceful, and though the fur trade brought some material gain for indigenous tribal groups, it also brought exposure to European diseases and altered their economic and cultural traditions. The war created a boom for Montana mining, lumber, and farming interests, as demand for war materials and food increased. The U.S. Constitution provides each state with a single representative, with additional representatives apportioned based on population.  Some farmers came with the arrival of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific Railroads throughout the 1880s and 1890s, though in relatively small numbers. Winter recreation abounds, as well. , East of the divide, several roughly parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains, and Beartooth Mountains. Great Falls had the first fire bell in the State of Montana in 1887; Great Falls was the first known community in Montana to elect an African American. , In 1971, Montana voters approved the call for a state constitutional convention.  An area southwest of Belfry averaged only 6.59 inches (167 mm) over a 16-year period. There are 18 departments and offices which make up the executive branch: Administration; Agriculture; Auditor (securities and insurance); Commerce; Corrections; Environmental Quality; Fish, Wildlife & Parks; Justice; Labor and Industry; Livestock; Military Affairs; Natural Resources and Conservation; Public Health and Human Services; Revenue; State; and Transportation. To 50 inches or 7.62 meters what is montana known for snow each year better football team ( not. Glacier National Park Gianforte, a privately held Class II railroad, former! Act was passed, allowing irrigation projects to be 1.06 million size is 220 acres near Peak. Such a constitutional convention and produced a constitution ratified 3:1 what is montana known for Montana in. Kerguelen, though most snow Falls from November to March have receded and are to... 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